In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.


  I used to look at my closet and see clothes. These days, whenever I cast my eyes upon the stacks of shoes and hangers of shirts, sweaters and jackets, I see water.

  It takes 569 gallons to manufacture a T-shirt, from its start in the cotton fields to its appearance on store shelves. A pair of running shoes? 1,247 gallons.

  Until last fall, I'd been oblivious to my "water footprint", which is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce goods and services, according to the Water Footprint Network. The Dutch nonprofit has been working to raise awareness of freshwater scarcity since 2008, but it was through the "Green Blue Book" by Thomas M. Kostigen that I was able to see how my own actions factored in.

  I've installed gray-water systems to reuse the wastewater from my laundry, machine and bathtub and reroute it to my landscape - systems that save, on average, 50 gallons of water per day. I've set up rain barrels and infiltration pits to collect thousands of gallons of storm water cascading from my roof. I've even entered the last bastion of greendom -installing a composting toilet.

  Suffice to say, I've been feeling pretty satisfied with myself for all the drinking water I've saved with these big-ticket projects.

  Now I realize that my daily consumption choices could have an even larger effect –not only on the local water supply but also globally: 1.1 billion people have no access to freshwater, and, in the future, those who do have access will have less of it.

  To see how much virtual water 1 was using, I logged on to the "Green Blue Book" website and used its water footprint calculator, entering my daily consumption habits. Tallying up the water footprint of my breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks, as well as my daily dose of over-the-counter uppers and downers - coffee, wine and beer- I'm using 512 gallons of virtual water each day just to feed myself.

  In a word: alarming.

  Even more alarming was how much hidden water I was using to get dressed. I'm hardly a clotheshorse, but the few new items I buy once again trumped the amount of water flowing from my faucets each day. If I'm serious about saving water, I realized I could make some simple lifestyle shifts. Looking more closely at the areas in my life that use the most virtual water, it was food and clothes, specifically meat, coffee and, oddly, blue jeans and leather jackets.

  Being a motorcyclist, I own an unusually large amount of leather - boots and jackets in particular. All of it is enormously water intensive. It takes 7,996 gallons to make a leather.jacket, leather being a byproduct of beef. It takes 2,866 gallons of water to make a single pair of blue jeans, because they're made from water-hogging cotton.

  Crunching the numbers for the amount of clothes I buy every year, it looks a lot like my friend's swimming pool. My entire closet is borderline Olympic.


  My late resolution is to buy some items used. Underwear and socks are, of course, exempt from this strategy, but 1 have no problem shopping less and also shopping at Goodwill. In fact, I'd been doing that for the past year to save money. My clothes' outrageous water footprint just reintbrced it for me.

  More conscious living and substitution, rather than sacrifice, are the prevailing ideas with the water footprint. It's one I'm trying, and that's had an unusual upside. I had a hamburger recently, and I enjoyed it a lot more since it is now an occasional treat rather than a weekly habit.

  (One gallon =3.8 litres)

  11. According to the passage, the Water Footprint Network

  A. made the author aware of freshwater shortage.

  B. helped the author get to know the Green Blue Book.

  C. worked for freshwater conservation for nonprofit purposes.

  D. collaborated with the Green Blue Book in freshwater conservation.

  12. Which of the following reasons can best explain the author's feeling of self-satisfaction?

  A. He made contribution to drinking water conservation in his own way.

  B. Money spent on upgrading his household facilities was worthwhile.

  C. His house was equipped with advanced water-saving facilities.

  D. He could have made even greater contribution by changing his lifestyle.

  13. According to the context, "...how mv own actions factored in" means

  A. how I could contribute to water conservation.

  B. what efforts I should make to save fresh water.

  C. what behaviour could be counted as freshwater-saving.

  D. how much of what I did contributed to freshwater shortage.

  14. According to the passage, the author was more alarmed by the fact that

  A. he was having more meat and coffee.

  B. his clothes used even more virtual water.

  C. globally there will be less fresh water.

  D. his lifestyle was too extravagant.

  15. "My entire closet is borderline Olympic" is an example of

  A. exaggeration. B. analogy.

  C. understatement. D. euphemism.

  16. What is the tone of the author in the last paragraph'?

  A. Sarcastic. B. Ironic. C. Critical. D. Humorous.



  In her novel of "Reunion, American Style", Rona Jaffe suggests that a class reunion "is more than a sentimental journey. It is also a way of answering the question that lies at the back of nearly all our minds. Did they do better than I?"

  Jaffe's observation may be misplaced but not completely lost. According to a study conducted by social psychologist Jack Sparacino, the overwhelming majority who attend reunions aren't there invidiously to compare their recent accomplishments with those of their former classmates. Instead, they hope, primarily, to relive their earlier successes.

  Certainly, a few return to show their former classmates how well they have done; others enjoy observing the changes that have occurred in their classmates (not always in themselves, of course). But the majority who attend their class reunions do so to relive the good times they remember having when they were younger. In his study, Sparacino found that, as high school students, attendees had been more popular, more often regarded as attractive, and more involved in extracurricular activities than those classmates who chose not to attend. For those who turned up at their reunions, then, the old times were also the good times!

  It would appear that Americans have a special fondness for reunions, judging by their prevalence. Major league baseball players, fraternity members, veterans groups, high school and college graduates, and former Boy Scouts all hold reunions on a regular basis. In addition, family reunions frequently attract blood relatives from faraway places who spend considerable money and time to reunite.

  Actually, in their affection for reuniting with friends, family or colleagues, Americans are probably no different from any other people, except that Americans have created a mind-boggling number and variety of institutionalized forms of gatherings to facilitate the satisfaction of this desire. Indeed, reunions have increasingly become formal events that are organized on a regular basis and, in the process, they have also become big business.

  Shell Norris of Class Reunion, Inc., says that Chicago alone has 1,500 high school reunions each year. A conservative estimate on the national level would be 10,000 annually. At one time, all high school reunions were organized by volunteers, usually female homemakers. In the last few years, however, as more and more women have entered the labour force, alumni reunions are increasingly being planned by specialized companies rather than by part-time volunteers.

  The first college reunion was held by the alumni of Yale University in 1792. Graduates of Pennsylvania, Princeton, Stanford, and Brown followed suit. And by the end of the 19th century,

  most 4-year institutions were holding alumni reunions.

  The variety of college reunions is impressive. At Princeton, alumni parade through the town wearing their class uniforms and singing their alma mater. At Marietta College, they gather for a dinner-dance on a steamship cruising the Ohio River.

  Clearly, the thought of cruising on a steamship or marching through the streets is usually not, by itself, sufficient reason for large numbers of alumni to return to campus. Alumni who decide to attend their reunions share a common identity based on the years they spent together as undergraduates. For this reason, universities that somehow establish a common bond – for example, because they are relatively small or especially prestigious - tend to draw substantial numbers of their alumni to reunions. In an effort to enhance this common identity, larger colleges and universities frequently build their class reunions on participation in smaller units, such as departments or schools. Or they encourage "affinity reunions" for groups of former cheerleaders, editors, fraternity members, musicians, members of military organizations on campus, and the like.

  Of course, not every alumnus is fond of his or her alma mater. Students who graduated during the late 1960s may be especially reluctant to get involved in alumni events. They were part of the generation that conducted sit-ins and teach-ins directed at university administrators, protested military recruitment on campus and marched against "establishment politics." If this generation has a common identity, it may fall outside of their university ties - or even be hostile to them. Even as they enter their middle years, alumni who continue to hold unpleasant memories of college during this period may not wish to attend class reunions.

  17. According to the passage, Sparacino's study

  A. provided strong evidence for Jaffe's statement.

  B. showed that attendees tended to excel in high school study.

  C. found that interest in reunions was linked with school experience.

  D. found evidence for attendees' intense desire for showing off success.

  18. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a distinct feature of U.S. class reunions?

  A. U.S. class reunions are usually occasions to show off one's recent success.

  B. Reunions are regular and formal events organized by professional agencies.

  C. Class reunions have become a profitable business.

  D. Class reunions have brought about a variety of activities.

  19. What mainly attracts many people to return to campus for reunion?

  A. The variety of activities for class reunion.

  B. The special status their university enjoys.

  C. Shared experience beyond the campus.

  D. Shared undergraduate experience on campus.

  20. The rhetorical function of the first paragraph is to

  A. introduce Rona Jeffe's novel.

  B. present the author's counterargument.

  C. serve as prelude to the author's argument.

  D. bring into focus contrasting opinions.

  21. What is the passage mainly about?

  A. Reasons for popularity and (non)attendance for alumni reunions.

  B. A historical perspective for alumni reunions in the United States.

  C. Alumni reunions and American university traditions.

  D. Alumni reunion and its social and economic implications.